Relazione European Agency for Safety and Health at Work su “La regolamentazione delle ripercussioni sulla salute e sicurezza sul lavoro dell’economia delle piattaforme online”

Ai primi di novembre 2017 è stata presentata – in occasione della giornata tematica del Comitato degli ispettori principali del lavoro e della conferenza dedicata alla SSL tenutesi a Tallinn il 7 e l’8 novembre sotto l’egida della presidenza estone dell’UE – una corposa relazione su “La regolamentazione delle ripercussioni sulla salute e sicurezza sul lavoro dell’economia delle piattaforme online” promossa da European Agency for Safety and Health at Work e realizzata dal Prof. Dr Sacha Garben.

Come già sanno i lettori di tecnostress.it, la crescita dell’economia digitale pone delle nuove sfide per la salute e sicurezza sul lavoro (SSL). Il lavoro nel mondo digitale e su piattaforma online, ovvero il lavoro fornito attraverso, su o mediato da piattaforme web, è caratterizzato da una molteplicità di regimi professionali, tra cui il lavoro occasionale, il lavoro autonomo dipendente, il lavoro a cottimo, il lavoro a domicilio e il crowd work.

La relazione (disponibile solo in inglese) si propone di descrivere i potenziali rischi di sicurezza e salute sul lavoro (SSL) che sono stati identificati in relazione al lavoro su piattaforme online, per evidenziare le sfide agli attuali approcci normativi in ​​materia di SSL e presentare esempi di diversi approcci nazionali  in corso di sviluppo per affrontare queste sfide.

Questo l’indice della relazione:

Executive summary

1. Definitions: the online platform economy and related concepts
The digitalisation of society and the digital economy
Online platforms and the online platform economy
Collaborative and sharing economy
The gig economy, on-demand economy, online platform work and various forms of atypical work

2. The regulation of online platform work
Factors complicating the regulation of the online platform economy
Regulatory and policy challenges of online platform work
Regulatory and policy options in relation to online platform work

3. OSH implications
Direct effects on OSH of online platform work
Indirect effects on OSH of online platform work due to uncertain applicability of employment rules
France
The United Kingdom
Denmark
Sweden
Finland
The Netherlands
Belgium
Ireland
Specific developments in other EU Member StatesThe European Commission
The European Parliament
The Court of Justice of the EU



4. Concluding remarks

Degli aspetti di lavoro digitale e Sicurezza sul lavoro, e più nello specifico di Tecnostress, si parla nel capitolo 3 “OSH implications” di cui propongo le conclusioni:

Online platform work poses a range of both pre-existing and new OSH risks, both physical and psycho-social.

The fact that online platform workers have many similarities to both temporary workers and agency workers means that they are probably exposed to the same OSH risks, with studies consistently showing higher injury rates among non-standard workers. Furthermore, any physical safety and health risks could be expected to be worse because of the loss of the protective effect of working in a common workplace, which may furthermore mean that the work equipment and environment fail ergonomic standards. Furthermore, online platform workers tend to be younger, which is a well-known independent risk factor for occupational injury.

In addition, platform work, through the use of inter-worker competition and rating mechanisms, encourages a rapid pace of work without breaks, which may induce accidents. Pay not being continuous but per assignment adds time pressure. The lack of appropriate training further increases the risk of accidents, and on top of this several key activities typically carried out by online platform workers are in occupations that are notoriously dangerous, such as construction and transport.

Digital online platform work carries risks such as permanent exposure to electromagnetic fields, visual fatigue and musculoskeletal problems. Psycho-social risks include isolation, stress, technostress, technology addiction, information overload, burn-out, postural disorders and cyber-bullying.

All online platform work can induce stress through continuous evaluation and rating of performance, competitive mechanisms for allocating work, uncertain payment and blurring of work–life boundaries. Job insecurity, known to contribute to poor overall health among atypical workers, is characteristic of online platform work. The precarious position of online platform workers is further aggravated by the fact that health surveillance will often be lacking, as will occupational health care, and the specific features of online platform work tend to hamper the collective organisation of workers, and thus the defence of their rights and interest, as well as the development of social dialogue.

Leggi la relazione integrale: “Protecting workers in the Online Platform Economy: An overview of regulatory and policy developments in the EU (La tutela dei lavoratori nell’economia delle piattaforme digitali: una panoramica degli sviluppi normativi e politici nell’UE)” (pdf) – European Risk Observatory Discussion paper.

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