Rassegna periodica delle ricerche in tema di tecnostress (o technostress, all’inglese) che ho recuperato nell’ultimo mese.
Le ricerche presentate provengono da tutto il mondo, sono tutte in lingua inglese e indagano diversi aspetti del tecnostress: neurobiologico, psicologico, uso dei media e dei social, impatto sulla produttività, eccetera.
Come sempre, presento titolo della ricerca, autori e un breve abstract (se disponibile); è possibile scaricare le ricerche complete in pdf cliccando sul link nel titolo della ricerca.
Technostress from a Neurobiological Perspective: System Breakdown Increases the Stress Hormone Cortisol in Computer Users
René Riedl, Johannes Kepler University Linz & University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria
Harald Kindermann, Fachhochschule Oberösterreich
Andreas Auinger, Fachhochschule Oberösterreich
Andrija Javor, Biogen International
Despite the positive impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on an individual, organizational, and societal level (e.g., increased access to information, as well as enhanced performance and productivity), both scientific research and anecdotal evidence indicate that human-machine interaction, both in a private and organizational context, may lead to notable stress perceptions in users.
This type of stress is referred to as technostress. A review of the literature shows that most studies used questionnaires to investigate the nature, antecedents, and consequences of technostress. Despite the value of the vast amount of questionnaire-based technostress research, we draw upon a different conceptual perspective, namely neurobiology.
Specifically, we report on a laboratory experiment in which we investigated the effects of system breakdown on changes in users’ levels of cortisol, which is a major stress hormone in humans. The results of our study show that cortisol levels increase significantly as a consequence of system breakdown in a human-computer interaction task.
In demonstrating this effect, our study has major implications for ICT research, development, management, and health policy. We confirm the value of a category of research heretofore largely neglected in ICT-related disciplines (particularly in business and information systems engineering, BISE, as well as information systems research, ISR), and argue that future research investigating human-machine interactions should consider the neurobiological perspective as a valuable complement to traditional concepts.
The Impact of Technostress on Role Stress and Productivity (link site, no PDF)
Monideepa Tarafdar – Qiang Tu, Rochester Institute of Technology
Bhanu S. Ragu-Nathan – T. S. Ragu-Nathan, University of Toledo
Based on empirical survey data, this paper uses concepts from sociotechnical theory and role theory to explore the effects of stress created by information and computer technology (ICT)-that is, “technostress”-on role stress and on individual productivity.
We first explain different ways in which ICTs can create stress in users and identify factors that create technostress. We next propose three hypotheses: (1) technostress is inversely related to individual productivity, (2) role stress is inversely related to individual productivity, and (3) technostress is directly related to role stress.
We then use structural equation modeling on survey data from ICT users in 223 organizations to test the hypotheses. The results show support for them. Theoretically, the paper contributes in three ways. First, the different dimensions of technostress identified here add to existing concepts on stress experienced by individuals in organizations.
Second, by showing that technostress inversely affects productivity, the paper reinforces that failure to manage the effects of ICT-induced stress can offset expected increases in productivity. Third, validation of the positive relationship between technostress and role stress adds a new conceptual thread to literature analyzing the relationship between technology and organizational roles and structure. In the practical domain, the paper proposes a diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent to which technostress is present in an organization and suggests that the adverse effects of technostress can be partly countered by strategies that reduce role conflict and role overload.
Psychological Factors of Technostress: Empirical Evidence from Indian Organizations
Chandranshu Sinha, Amity University
The study explores to identify the psychological factors of technostress in organizations. The data was collected from 100 employees holding middle managerial positions in various IT organizations, based in India. The Cronbach ” s alpha of the questionnaire was found to be 0.786 & Pearson correlation was 0.912 (p<0.001).
The factor analysis of the component ” psychological factors of technostress ” led to the extraction of three below mentioned factors from various organizations. The three emerging factors were ” techno-cognitive-task-concern ” , ” techno-invasive-emotional-differences ” , ” techno-invasive-task-disagreement ” respectively.
The results indicate that these factors are major source of cognitive, emotional and interpersonal issues at psychological level which the employees at middle managerial level perceive and experience at work due to technostress in the Indian context.
Prevalence and Correlates of Technostress among Academic Staff at the University of Jos, Nigeria
Kingsley Mayowa Okonoda, University of Jos
Yetunde Tagurum, University of Jos
Bawo Onesirosan James, Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Benin-City
Background: Technostress is one aspect of stress on the job which in turn is increasingly recognized as a major organizational problem. The considerable amount of time spent on the computer and electronic gadgets by academic staff portends significant increase in levels of psychological and physical stress capable of interfering with their performance at work leading to less efficiency.
The aim of this study was to find out the level of awareness, prevalence and correlates of technostress among academic staff of University of Jos. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken. Multistage sampling method was used to select academic staff in the 12 faculties of the University of Jos, Nigeria. Data Collection was with the use of a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire
Results: Almost half (48.6%) of the respondents had no idea of what technostress was, while only 31.3% of respondents knew what it was and had understanding of it. The prevalence of technostresswas 54.2%, and the respondents who have over 20years work experience are at least 3 times more likely not to report technostress compared to those less than 10years. Slow internet network, increased workload, pressure to stay up to date and work efficiently with the latest technology, lack of technical support and unreliability of technology were other factors contributing to technostress in increasing frequency. However, no statistically significant relationship (p > 0.05) was found to exist between technostress and respondents’ age group, gender, attendance of technology related training, average number of hours spent per day on technological devices, years of using computer gadgets (p=0.05).
Conclusions: There is a low level of awareness of technostress among academic staff of University of Jos. The prevalence of technostress among respondent was slightly above half. In general, the respondents had a moderate level of technostress. The more the work experience and the lesser the likelihood of experiencing technostress and the lower the levels of it experienced.
However, the age and gender of academic staff as well as the number of hours spent per day on a technological device, attendance of technology-related training as well as years of computer gadgets use did not significantly affect their experience of technostress.
Personality and espoused cultural differences in technostress creators
Satish Krishnan, Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode
This study examines the individual differences in ‘technostress creators’—defined as the factors that cause technostress for employees
Drawing on the Five-Factor model of personality and Hofstede’s cultural values framework, this study proposes that the Big-Five personality traits and the espoused cultural values explain variation in technostress creators beyond the traditional antecedent measures of age, gender, education, and computer confidence.
Further, in line with the insights from extant behavioral studies on “personality–culture” interaction, this study posits that the Big-Five personality traits can be linked to technostress creators more closely when each of them is accompanied by the espoused cultural value of long-term orientation than when without it.
Analyzing data from an online survey of 322 full-time employees in India, results indicated that (1) the personality traits of agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience, and the espoused cultural values of masculinity and power distance are the key predictors of technostress creators; and (2) the relationships of agreeableness, conscientiousness and extraversion with technostress creators are contingent on espoused long-term orientation.
Findings of this study contribute to the knowledge base of technostress by understanding the linkages of (and among) personality and culture with technostress creators.
Technostress Research: A Nurturing Ground for Measurement Pluralism?
Thomas Fischer, Fachhochschule Oberösterreich
René Riedl, Johannes Kepler University Linz
Because technostress research is multidisciplinary in nature and therefore benefits from insights gained from various research disciplines, we expected a high degree of measurement pluralism in technostress studies published in the Information Systems (IS) literature.
However, because IS research, in general, mostly relies on self-report measures, there is also reason to assume that multi-method research designs have been largely neglected in technostress research. To assess the status quo of technostress research with respect to the application of multi-method approaches, we analyzed 103 empirical studies.
Specifically, we analyzed the types of data collection methods used and the investigated components of the technostress process (person, environment, stressors, strains, and coping). The results indicate that multi-method research is more prevalent in the IS technostress literature (approximately 37% of reviewed studies) than in the general IS literature (approximately 20% as reported in previous reviews).
However, our findings also show that IS technostress studies significantly rely on self-report measures. We argue that technostress research constitutes a nurturing ground for the application of multi-method approaches and multidisciplinary collaboration.
Understanding teleworkers’ technostress and its influence on job satisfaction (link site, no pdf)
Ayoung Suh, City University of Hong Kong
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a theoretical model that predicts a teleworker’s job satisfaction.
Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the technostress model and job characteristics theory, this study proposed a theoretical model. The proposed model was tested through a survey of 258 teleworkers from two global IT companies that have adopted telework programs.
Findings: The results show that technology and job characteristics jointly induce teleworkers’ technostress, which in turn reduces their job satisfaction. The results also indicate that the manner in which technology and job characteristics influence teleworkers’ technostress varies depending on the intensity of teleworking (IOT). Interestingly, this study finds that teleworkers with a low IOT are more vulnerable to technostress than those with a high IOT.
Research limitations/implications: By discussing the magnitude of the different factors that determine teleworkers’ technostress and job satisfaction, this study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of teleworkers’ challenges. The study provides insights and prescriptive guidelines that will help managers and companies develop strategies to maximize the benefits of teleworking implementation.
Practical implications: This study provides insights and prescriptive guidelines for managers or companies to develop strategies to maximize the benefits of teleworking implementation.
Originality/value: This paper is one of the first to develop and empirically test an integrated model of technostress and job characteristics. The paper outlines relevant research avenues for researchers investigating remote work and virtual collaboration.
Rita Berger, University of Barcelona
Marina Romeo, University of Barcelona
Gerd Gidion, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Technology is reaching all areas of our lives. The fact that technology is already part of our daily routine causes that people have to adapt to these changes quickly, and to keep up with these fast advances of the ICT’s, people have to update their knowledge and skills, and it can produce technostress.
Studies have found that technostress has a negative impact on both the health of people and their productivity. The present work aims to identify the emergence of technostress among administrative staff. 294 administrative employees from the University of Barcelona answered the standardized Media Use questionnaire that measures usage frequency, media skills, technostress, socio-demographic factors and feelings on media usage.
The socio-demographic variables age, gender, and skills were analyzed to find out whether these variables, as some previous literature had suggested, had some influence on the technostress perception. The results in our case showed that there is no significant difference in perceiving technostress between men and women.
At the same time, we found that older people perceive more technostress than young people and that with increasing level of IT skills the participants perceived less technostress. The results are an important piece of information for the human resources departments. They indicate possible ways to fight technostress such as to invest into courses or trainings for the employees, to the older ones in the first place.
How Much Digitalization Can a Human Tolerate? (link site, no pdf)
This research studies the creators and outcomes of technostress due to smartphone usage and how users cope with it. There is little research about the negative consequences of smartphone usage, so at first, recent studies on overload of information and communication systems will be presented and discussed.
The transactional model of stress by Lazarus serves as the theoretical basis of this thesis to understand the origin of stress and especially of technostress. To examine smartphone user behavior and user’s feelings regarding smartphones, eight semistructured interviews will be conducted.
The results show that smartphones have occupied an important place in our society and have become indispensable. Mobile phones are constant companions and are used up to several hours a day. Above all, this intensive use, the constant connectivity and the urge to multitask are creating technostress.
As a result of constantly checking the phone other activities are interrupted. This leads to less concentration, productivity and overall satisfaction. The subliminal use of the smartphone can even lead to dependency.
Furthermore, the frequent use causes interpersonal conflicts and can change one’s social behavior. To reduce or to avoid technostress, the smartphone usage and/or the interruptions need to be minimized.
Social media-induced technostress: Its impact on the job performance of it professionals and the moderating role of job characteristics
Stoney Brooks, Middle Tennessee State University
Christopher B Califf, Western Washington University
Using social media during work hours for non-work-related reasons is becoming commonplace. Organizations are therefore challenged with identifying and overcoming the consequences of such use.
Social media-induced technostress has been identified as an important unintended consequence of using social media at work, as it could negatively impact job performance. This study draws on Person-Environment Fit to investigate the relationship between social media-induced technostress and job performance in IT professionals, and the moderating effect of job characteristics on this relationship.
The results indicate that social media-induced technostress is negatively related to job performance and the negative impact of social media-induced technostress is intensified when the job characteristics are low.
This work extends the literature on job-stress, social media, technostress, and job characteristics.
THE MODERATING ROLES OF TECHNO-SAVVY AND PROACTIVE PERSONALITY
Extending research on Technostress: Exploring the Moderating Effects of Techno-savvy and the Proactive Personality on the relationship between technostress and job satisfaction and stress
Qian Ye, Master of Science in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, University of Canterbury
Technostress experienced by individuals at workplaces has increased in last ten years. Exploring technostress in depth is crucial. The present study extended technostress research by focusing on the moderating roles of techno-savvy and the proactive personality.
Techno-savvy and the proactive personality were proposed to moderate the relationships between the five techno- dimensions (techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity and techno- uncertainty) and job satisfaction.
They were also proposed to moderate the relationships between the five techno-dimensions and job stress. An online survey was adopted to recruit participants. There were 140 participants agreed to participate the survey. However, there were 112 participants completed the online survey without missing any questions. The multiple moderation regression analysis was conducted.
The result suggested that for individuals who were more techno-savvy, their job satisfaction was shown to be less affected by techno-overload and techno-insecurity than those who were less techno-savvy. The result also suggested that for those who were more techno- savvy, their job stress was shown to be more affected by techno-invasion than those who were less techno-savvy.
The proposed moderating role of the proactive personality was not found in the study. The present study can be extended by exploring other techno-dimensions, such as techno- change, techno-addiction and techno-reliability.
Keywords: Technostress, Techno-overload, Techno-insecurity, Techno-invasion, Techno- complexity, Techno-uncertainty, Techno-savvy, Proactive personality trait, job satisfaction, and job stress
THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOSTRESS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE
Kyoungjune Kim, Senior Research Fellow, Global Business Academy, Incheon National University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Korea
Hyunjun Park (Corresponding author, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Incheon National University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Korea
Recent information technology is developing rapidly enough to provide new insights beyond human intuition. However, due to incidents such as job loss and privacy invasion, individuals are exposed to stress such as fear and pressure.
The stress caused by such information technology may have a negative impact on the acceptance of new technology or productivity, and understanding this in practice is a critical task in modern society.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of technostress on the level of the individual in accepting new information technology.
We developed a research model with innovation resistance as a mediating variable and conducted empirical analysis through 190 questionnaire responses. As a result, there were influences of the pace of change, reliability, connectivity, and complexity on the characteristics of information technology that induces individual technostress.
Also, technostress has been proven to influence the acceptance of information technology only indirectly through innovation resistance. This study will provide meaningful insights and implications for the technostresses and consequences raised in the information system field through innovation resistance.
Keywords: Technostress, Innovation Resistance, Technology Acceptance, Techno-Strain, P-E Fit theory
ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION IN THE WORKPLACE: BOON OR BANE?
Jean-François Stich, ICN Business School, CEREFIGE, Nancy, France
Monideepa Tarafdar, Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
Cary L. Cooper, Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review technostress related challenges arising out of workplace communication, for employees and organizations, and to provide suggestions for taking these challenges on.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents an overview of current research and practice in the area of technostress related challenges workplace communication.
Findings – Employees face technostress challenges relating to workplace communication in the form of technology overload, interruptions and work-home interferences. Organizations have to strike a balance between giving employees the technology they want and protecting them from these
Practical implications – The paper gives practitioners an accessible overview of current research and practice in the area of technostress from workplace communication such as email. A number of practical interventions are reviewed and commented on, which could help employees tackle such challenges.
Originality/value – Although this paper reviews state-of-the-art research, it is written in an accessible and practitioner-oriented style, which should be found valuable by readers with limited time but urgency to deal with technostress challenges arising out of workplace communication.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Workplace communication, Email, Stress, Technostress.
Understanding the Consequences of Technostress: A Non-Linear Perspective
Issa, Helmi, ESC Rennes, France
Bahli, Bouchaib, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
Despite the rise in technostress research, two significant gaps have been overlooked.
First, although studies on stress proposed curvilinear relationships, such interactions have rarely been examined in the technostress literature.
Second, despite stress being multi-disciplinary and theoretically related to emotions, past technostress studies have rarely adopted transdisciplinary approaches.
This paper aims to address these knowledge gaps by adopting the triphasic stress model, the appraisal theory of emotions, and the activation theory to investigate and explain the presence of curvilinear relationships within a mediated and moderated model.
Data were collected and analyzed by surveying 215 employees from four different medium-sized US organizations. Our findings suggest that antecedents such as ICT-self-efficacy and presenteeism significantly relate to technostressors through cubic S-shaped interactions, while technostressors exhibit a quadratic U-shaped relation with technoexhaustion, whereas technoexhaustion shows a positive linear relationship with discontinuous usage intention.
Furthermore, our results partially support the moderating influence of negative affectivity and mediation effects of technoexhaustion.
Through this study, we offer a different theoretical perspective and an innovative understanding of the true nature of the technology and stressors. It also offers insights on designing effective organizational ICT tools.
Keywords: technostress, curvilinear, triphasic stress model, activation theory.